9B Unit 1 知识点

rachel_zhao 2014-5-21 15:15 [复制链接]
9B  Unit 1   Life on Mars(1)第一单元 火星上的生活
1. How do you like life on Mars?
  你觉得火星上的生活怎么样?★该句子中“How do you like…?”相当于What do you think of…?意思是“你觉得……怎么样?”,曰常口语中用来询问对方对某一事物的看法或者判断。如:  “How do you like China?” 你觉得中国怎么样?
   “It’s great. I like it very much.” “中国很伟大。我很喜欢它。”
2. I hate it.  我讨厌它。★hate用作动词,意思是“讨厌”“厌恶某人/某物”。如: ① She hates anyone listening while she’s telephoning.  她打电话的时候,讨厌别人听。② She hates getting to the cinema late.  她讨厌看电影迟到。★hate用作动词,意思是“痛恨”“不喜欢”“憎恶某人/某物”。如: ① She knew clearly what to love and what to hate.  她爱憎分明。② She hated all this bitterly.  她对这一切极为痛恨。★hate用作动词,常常用在口语中表示“不愿”“遗憾”的意思。如: ① I hate to trouble you.  我不愿麻烦你。② I would hate you to think I didn’t care.  我很遗憾你认为我漠不关心。【注】一般而论,当hate后接动词不定式时,动词不定式表达的是一次性的将来动作。如:③ To tell you the truth, I hate to do it.  (to do it仅仅表示一种潜在的可能性)
   说实话,我不愿意做这件事。④ She hate the children to quarrel.  (to quarrel只表示一种潜在的可能性)
 她讨厌孩子们吵架。⑤ I hate the clock to chime (…just when I’m going to sleep.) (这里指的是一次打点)
 我讨厌钟(在我正要入睡时)打点。 【注】总的来说,当hate后接动名词时,动名词往往表示正在进行的动作或经常性的动作。如:⑥ I hate disturbing you. (=I’m disturbing you and I’m sorry.)
   我是很不愿意打扰你的。(正在打扰或经常打扰)⑦ I hate being laughed at.  我不愿意被人嘲笑。⑧ I hate children quarrelling.  (强调正在吵架或者经常吵架)
   我讨厌孩子们(总)吵架。【注】hate sb. doing sth.的意思是“不愿意某人做某事”。如:⑨ He hates people asking him for money.  他讨厌人们向他借钱。⑩ Our teacher hates anyone destroying things.  我们老师讨厌人们损坏东西。★hate用作不可数名词,意思是“憎恨”。如: ① She was filled with hate for his opponent.  她对她的对手满怀憎恨。② He left with a look full of hate.  他带着憎恨的眼光离开了。★hate用作可数名词,常常用在口语中,表示“所眼的人或物”。如: ① Jim is one of my pet hates.  吉姆是我恨之入骨者之一。② Plastic flowers are a particular hate of mine.  塑料花是我特别厌恶的东西。
3. I can’t get to my food.  我吃不到我的食物了。★get to作“触及”“接触”“影响”讲。如: ① His honesty got to me.  他的诚实打动了我。② His words got to me. I decided to walk on.  他的话影响了我,我决定继续走下去。★get to作“到达”讲,后接地点,相当于reach或arrive at/in。如: ① I’ll call you as soon as I get to Beijing  我一到北京就打电话给你。② The train had left when I got there.  当我到达那儿时,火车已经开走了。③ When did he get to New York?  他什么时候到达纽约的?【注】当get to后面接here, there, home等副词时,to必须省略。【注】get to, arrive和reach的区别。★arrive是不及物动词,如果要表达到达一个地方时,后面需要加上介词in或者at,到达大的地方用介词in,到达小的地方用介词at。如: ① When we arrived, they had gone.  当我们到达时,他们已经走了。② His mother arrived in Beijing yesterday.  他妈妈昨天到达了北京。③ I arrived at the bus stop at 2 o’clock.  我两点钟就到达了汽车站。★reach是及物动词,后面直接跟宾语,一般不接表示地点的副词。如: ① He reached Shanghai last Wednesday.  他上星期三到达上海的。② How did you reach the village?  你如何到达这个村庄的?
4. Maybe people will be able to travel in space and live on other planets.
 也许人们能够在太空上旅行并生活在其他星球上。★able用作形容词,意为“有能力的”“有才能的”,在句中不能放在名词前,常用于be able to do sth. 结构,意思是“能做某事”“会做某事”,它有时态、人称和数的变化。如: ① The child is able to write now.  这孩子现在能写字了。② Will you be able to come tomorrow?  明天你能来吗?③ Jim was able to ride a bike two years ago.  吉姆两年前就能骑自行车了。④ The little boy has been able to speak a little English.
这个小男孩已经会说一些英语了。⑤ I’m not able to go swimming with you because I’m very busy.
   我不能和你一起去游泳,因为我很忙。⑥ You are better able to do it than I.  你比我更有能力做这件事。 【注】be able to与can的区别
         can只有一般现在时和一般过去时(could)两种形式,而be able to除了现在时和过去时外,还有将来时和完成时。如:⑦ I’m sorry I haven’t been able to answer your letter.  对不起,我一直没有给你回信。⑧ Were you able to drive a car last year?  去年你会开车吗?⑨ Tom can swim across the river now.  汤姆现在能游过这条河了。★当人们现在决定是否有做某事的能力时,常常用can,而不用be able to。如: ① Can I go fishing if it doesn’t rain tomorrow?  如果明天不下雨,我可以去钓鱼吗?② Can you come to my birthday party on Sunday?
星期天你能来参加我的生曰聚会吗?★can与be able to不能重叠使用。如: We can talk about it now. =We are able to talk about it now.
现在我们可以谈这件事了。(不可以说:We can be able to talk about it now.)★able的比较级和最高级有两种形式,可以在词尾加-er,-est,也可以在它的前面加more, most。如: ① He is the ablest student in his class.  他是他班上最有才华的学生。② He is the most able man I’ve ever seen.  他是我曾见过的最能干的人。
5. Help Daniel compare living on Mars to living on Earth at present.
  帮助丹尼尔把居住在火星和居住在地球作比较。★compare用作及物动词,意为“比作”,常与介词to连用,表示“把……比作……”。但在有些情况下我们也使用compare…to…来表达“将……同……作比较”的意思。如: ① Poets have compared sleep to death.  诗人把睡眠比作死亡。② We may compare the world to a stage.  我们可以把世界比作一个舞台。③ The poet compares his lover to a rose in his poem.
诗人在他的诗歌中把他的情人比作玫瑰花。④ The work was hard and dangerous, but the pay was good compared to the wages in the old country.
   这项工作很艰苦,很危险,但是与这个国家过去的工资相比较,它的报酬还是很可观的。★compare还要意为“比较”“对照”,与with连用,意为“把……与……比较”。如: ① Compare the two and take the better one.  比较两者,选取较好的。② She compared her answer with the one given in the book.
   她把自己的答案与书中给的答案作了比较。③ If you compared British football with American football, you will find many differences.
   如果你把英式足球与美式足球作一比较,你会发现有许多不同之处。★compare用作不及物动词,意思是“比得上”“相比”。如: ① Nothing can compare with wool, for warmth.
     从保暖性能来看,没有什么东西能与羊毛相比。② Living in a town can’t compare with living in the country in many respects.
   在许多方面城市生活比不上乡村生活。★过去分词短语compared with和compared to表示“与……比起来”,在句中常用作状语,可位于句首或句尾,此时介词to和with通用。如: ① This road is quite busy compared with / to ours.
     与我们那条路相比,这条路要繁忙得多。② Children seem to learn more interesting things compared with/to when we were at school.
6. present的用法★at present意为“现在”“当前”,present用作不可数名词,意为“目前”“当前”。如: ① You have to stop worrying about the past and start thinking about the present!
     你必须要停止担心过去,要开始考虑现在。② I’m afraid that I can’t help you at present.  我恐怕现在帮不了你。★present用作可数名词,意为“礼物”“赠品”,相当于gift,一般来说可以通用,但gift带有一定的感情色彩,有时有“捐赠”的意思。如: ① Jane received many presents on her 15th birthday.
  简在她15岁生曰时收到了许多礼物。② Many thanks for the gift/present you sent me yesterday.
   多谢你昨天送给我的礼物。③ I’m buying it for a present, so please wrap it up nicely.
   我买这东西是送人的,请包得好一些。④ What a lot of presents you’ve had!  你收到的礼物真多啊!★present用作形容词,意为“出席的”“在场的”,通常作表语或放在名词后作定语。如: ① All are present and all is going on well.  全体人员都到了,一切进展顺利。② Present at the meeting were our teachers, headmaster and some students.
   出席会议的有我们的老师,校长和一些学生。③ How many people were present at the meeting?  有多少人参加了会议?④ All the people present agreed to the plan.  在场的所有人都同意该计划。★present用作形容词,意为“现在的”“现存的”“目前的”,通常放在名词前。如: ① Bush is the present president of the United States.  布什是美国现任总统。② I’m the present owner of the house.  我是这房子现在的房主。③ We do not have any more information at the present time. 目前我们没有进一步的消息。
7. We will be cared for by robots.  我们将被机器人照顾。
care既可以作动词,也可以作名词。★care既可作及物动词也可作不及物动词,意为“在乎”“在意”,通常用于否定句、疑问句或条件句中。如: ① vi.  They might fail, but they didn’t care.  他们可能会失败,但他们不在乎。
         I don’t care if I never see him again.  即便我永远再也见不到他,我也不在乎。② vt.  I’ll go. I don’t care what happens.  不管发生什么,我都要去。
       I don’t care whom you will go together with.  我并不介意你要和谁一起去。★care与for或about连用,意为“关心”“爱护”。care for作“照顾”解时,可用于被动语态。如: ① We should care for/about each other.  我们应该互相关心。② The children are well cared for in the nursery.  孩子们在托儿所受到很好的照顾。★care后接动词不定式或介词for/about,意为“喜欢”“愿意”“对……感兴趣”,用于否定句和疑问句中,不可用于被动语态。如: ① He might not care to go.  他也许不想去。② She didn’t care to be disturbed.  她不愿意被打扰。③ Rose doesn’t care about money.  罗斯对钱不感兴趣。④ I don’t care for the place.  我不喜欢这个地方。★care作名词用时,除了作“关心”“照顾”“忧虑”等解以外,还有“小心”“谨慎”“保护”“管理”“责任”“可忧虑的事(原因)”等。如: ① I retired last year. Now I am a man free from care duty.
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